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Anal Fissure: An anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus (the opening through which stool passes out of the body) that extends upwards into the anal canal. Fissures are a common condition of the anus and anal canal and are responsible for 6% to 15% of the visits to a colon and rectal (colorectal) surgeon. They affect men and women equally both the young and the old. Fissures usually cause pain during bowel movements that often is severe.

Obstetric Fistula: An obstetric fistula is a hole between the vagina and rectum or bladder that is caused by prolonged obstructed labour, leaving a woman incontinent of urine or faeces or both. For women with obstructed labour, labour that goes unattended, the labour can last up to six or seven days. The labour produces contractions that push the baby’s head against the mother’s pelvic bone. The soft tissues between the baby’s head and the pelvic bone are compressed and do not receive adequate blood flow.

Hemorrhoid: Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal. This common problem can be painful, but it’s usually not serious. Veins can swell inside the anal canal to form internal haemorrhoids. Or they can swell near the opening of the anus to form external haemorrhoids. You can have both types at the same time. The symptoms and treatment depend on which type you have.